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Definition Essay: Piaget’s Concrete Operational Stage

Definition Essay: Piaget’s Concrete Operational Stage

Definition Essay: Piaget’s Concrete Operational Stage

So you will know the authors a bit better, here is some information.

Anita Woolfolk was born in Fort Worth, Texas, where her mother taught child development

at TCU and her father was an early worker in the computer industry. She is a Texas Long-hornall

her degrees are from the University of Texas, Austin, the last one a PhD. After

graduating, she worked as a child psychologist in elementary and secondary schools in

15 counties of central Texas. She began her career in higher education as a professor of

educational psychology at Rutgers University, and then moved to The Ohio State University

in 1994. Today she is Professor Emerita at Ohio State. Anitas research focuses on motivation

and cognition, specifically, students and teachers sense of efficacy and teachers beliefs about

education. For many years she was the editor of Theory Into Practice, a journal that brings

the best ideas from research to practicing educators. She has published over 80 books, book

chapters, and research articles with her students and colleagues. Anita has served as vice-president

for Division K (Teaching & Teacher Education) of the American Educational

Research Association and president of Division 15Educational Psychology of the American

Psychological Association. Just before completing this edition of Educational Psychology, she

collaborated with Nancy Perry, University of British Columbia, to write the second edition of

Child Development (Pearson, 2015), a book for all those who work with and love children.

Philip H. Winne received his Ph.D. from Stanford University, accepted a position at Simon

Fraser University in 1975, and has happily worked there his entire career. He is a profes-sor

as SFU and previously served as associate dean for Graduate Studies and Research in

the Faculty of Education. His research accomplishments earned him two terms as a Tier I

Canada Research Chair in Self-Regulated Learning & Learning Technologies and election

as a fellow of the American Educational Research Association, the American Psychological

Association, the Association for Psychological Science, and the Canadian Psychological

Association. His research interests include self-regulated learning, metacognition, motiva-tion,

study tactics and learning strategies, adaptive software for research, and promoting

self-regulated learning. To pursue these topics, he leads a team developing state-of-the-art

software called nStudy. As students use nStudy to study online, the software collects

extensive and detailed data about how they study. He has published more than 170 schol-arly

works and served as president of the Canadian Educational Researchers Association,

the Canadian Association for Educational Psychology, and Division 15Educational Psy-chology

of the American Psychological Association. He co-edited the Handbook of Edu-cational

Psychology (second edition) with Patricia Alexander and the field-leading journal

Educational Psychologist (20012005), with Lyn Corno. He has served as Associate Editor

of the British Journal of Educational Psychology for nearly 20 years, and currently is a

member of the editorial board of seven other leading journals in the field.

Nancy Perry worked as a classroom and resource teacher in school districts in British

Columbia, Canada, before obtaining her Ph.D. from the University of Michigan in 1996.

Today, she is a professor of Educational and Counselling Psychology, and Special Education

at the University of British Columbia (UBC). There, she teaches courses in two program

areasHuman Development, Learning, and Culture; and Special Education; and supports

students in a B.Ed. cohort that focuses on promoting self-regulated learning (SRL) in the

middle years. She is a recipient of UBCs Killam Teaching Prize and holds the Dorothy Lam

Chair in Special Education. Her research examines the role of task structures, instructional

practices, and interpersonal relationships in promoting motivation and self-regulation in

school. Related projects are profiled on her website: Seeding Success through Motivation

and Self-Regulation in Schools, In addi-tion

to these teaching and research activities, Nancy has served an Associate Editor for the

Journal of Learning and Instruction, President of Division 15Educational Psychology of

the American Psychological Association, President of the Canadian Association for Educa-tional

Psychology, Member of the Executive Boards of the Canadian Association for Studies

in Education and Division 15Educational Psychology as Member-at-Large




Many of you reading this book are enrolled in an educational psychology course as part

of your professional preparation for teaching, counselling, speech therapy, nursing, or

psychology. The material in this text should be of interest to everyone who is concerned

about education and learning, from the kindergarten volunteer to the instructor in a

community program for adults with disabilities. No background in psychology or educa-tion

is necessary to understand this material. It is as free of jargon and technical lan-guage

as possible, and many people have worked to make this edition clear, relevant,

and interesting.

Since the first edition of Educational Psychology appeared, there have been many

exciting developments in the field. The seventh Canadian edition continues to emphasize

the educational implications and applications of research on child development, cognitive

science, learning, motivation, teaching, and assessment. Theory and practice are not sepa-rated

in the text but are considered together. The book is written to show how information

and ideas drawn from research in educational psychology can be applied to solve the

everyday problems of teaching. To help you explore the connections between research

and practice, you will find in these pages a wealth of examples, lesson segments, case

studies, guidelines, and even practical tips from experienced teachers. As you read this

book, we believe you will see the immense value and usefulness of educational psychol-ogy.

The field offers unique and crucial knowledge to any who dare to teach and to all

who love to learn.


Across the book, there is increased coverage of a number of important topics. Some of

these include

New explorations of current research on teaching and models of expert teaching,

introduced in Chapter 1 and continued throughout the book.

Increased coverage of the brain, neuroscience, and teaching emphasized in Chapter 2

and also integrated into several other chapters.

Increased coverage of the impact of technology and virtual learning environ-ments

on the lives of students and teachers today.

Increased emphasis on diversity in todays classrooms, especially in Chapters 1

to 6. Portraits of students in educational settings make diversity real and human

for readers.

Key content changes in each chapter include the following:

Chapter 1 Learning, Teaching, and Educational Psychology

Our goal is that this text will provide the knowledge and skills that will enable you

to build a solid foundation for an authentic sense of teaching efficacy in every context

and for every student. There is new information about models of good teaching here

and throughout the text. Also, the section on research now examines different kinds

of qualitative and quantitative research and what you can learn from each approach

(see Table 1.2).

Chapter 2 Cognitive Development

New information on the brain, synaptic plasticity, executive functioning, and implica-tions

for teaching, including an approach based on Vygotsky called Tools of the Mind




Chapter 3 Self and Social and Moral Development

New sections on cultural differences in play, physical activity and students with

disabilities, eating disorders and the websites that promote them, self-conceptparticularly

elaborations of gender and sexual identityand Jonathan Haidts

model of moral psychology.

Chapter 4 Learner Differences and Learning Needs

New sections on nine possible multiple intelligences, autism spectrum disorders,

student drug use, and ways to identify students who are gifted and talented.

Chapter 5 Language Development, Language Diversity, and

Immigrant Education

New information on learning to read, emergent literacy and language diversity, shel-tered

instruction, and student-led conferences.

Chapter 6 Culture and Diversity

New coverage of homeless and highly mobile students, expanded coverage of pov-erty

and school achievement, opportunity gaps, and stereotype threat.

Chapter 7 Behavioural Views of Learning

Expanded coverage of teaching implications of behavioural learning.

Chapter 8 Cognitive Views of Learning

Updated coverage of working memory, developmental differences, and teaching

implications of cognitive learning theories.

Chapter 9 Complex Cognitive Processes

Updated sections on metacognition and learning strategies, creativity, and transfer,

and a new section on Paul and Elders model of critical thinking.

Chapter 10 The Learning Sciences and Constructivism

New material on inquiry learning and teaching in a digital world, including Bettys

Brainan example of a virtual learning environmentthe use of games in teaching,

and the initiative to teach computational thinking and coding.

Chapter 11 Social Cognitive Views of Learning and Motivation

Updated coverage of self-efficacy, self-regulated learning, and new material on emo-tional


Chapter 12 Motivation in Learning and Teaching

Updated treatment of self-determination theory and goal theory, expanded coverage

of helping students cope with anxiety, and new material on flow and motivation




Chapter 13 Creating Learning Environments

New sections on understanding your beliefs about classroom management, creating

caring relationships, bullying, restorative justice, and Marvin Marshalls views on

consequences and penalties.

Chapter 14 Teaching Every Student

Updated discussion of research on teaching, as well as a new section on understand-ing

by design.

Chapter 15 Classroom Assessment, Grading, and Standardized Testing

Updated material on student testing.



The seventh Canadian edition maintains the lucid writing style for which the book is

renowned. The text provides accurate, up-to-date coverage of the foundational areas

within educational psychology: learning, development, motivation, teaching, and assess-ment,

combined with intelligent examination of emerging trends in the field and society

that affect student learning, such as student diversity, inclusion of students with special

learning needs, education and neuroscience, and technology.


During the years we have worked on this book, from initial draft to this most recent revi-sion,

many people have supported the project. Without their help, this text simply could

not have been written.

Many educators contributed to this and previous editions. For recent contributions,

we give thanks to

Lisa Dack, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education

Marian Jazvac-Martek, McGill University

Anoop Gupta, University of Windsor

Ashleigh Lerch, Western University

Elsa Lo, Concordia University

Chris Mattatall, University of Lethbridge

Julie Mueller, Wilfrid Laurier University

Nancy Norman, University of the Fraser Valley

Alexa Okrainec, Brandon University

Sheila Windle, University of Ottawa

Stephanie Yamniuk, University of Winnipeg

For reviews in connection with the sixth, fifth, and fourth Canadian editions, thanks to

Ajit Bedi, Memorial University of Newfoundland

Scott Conrod, McGill University

Connie Edwards, University of Toronto

Sonja Grover, Lakehead University

Michael Harrison, University of Ottawa

Linda Lysynchuck, Laurentian University

Anne MacGregor, Douglas College





Rob McTavish, Simon Fraser University

Marlene Maldonado-Esteban, University of Windsor

Carlin J. Miller, University of Windsor

John C. Nesbit, Simon Fraser University

Gene Ouellette, Mount Allison University

Krista Pierce, Red Deer College

Jeff St. Pierre, University of Western Ontario

Noella Piquette-Tomei, University of Lethbridge

Kenneth A. Pudlas, Trinity Western University

Jill Singleton-Jackson, University of Windsor

Irina Tzoneva, University of Fraser Valley

Jennifer A. Vadeboncoeur, University of British Columbia

David Young, University of Western Ontario





1 Learning, Teaching, and Educational Psychology 1


2 Cognitive Development 22

3 Self and Social and Moral Development 64

4 Learner Differences and Learning Needs 110

5 Language Development, Language Diversity,

and Immigrant Education 160

6 Culture and Diversity 195


7 Behavioural Views of Learning 232

8 Cognitive Views of Learning 266

9 Complex Cognitive Processes 302

10 The Learning Sciences and Constructivism 342

11 Social Cognitive Views of Learning and Motivation 382

12 Motivation in Learning and Teaching 414


13 Creating Learning Environments 457

14 Teaching Every Student 497

15 Classroom Assessment, Grading, and Standardized Testing 53




About the Authors iv

Preface v





Teachers CasebookIncluding All Students: What

Would You Do? 1

Overview and Objectives 2

Learning and Teaching Today 2

Classrooms Today Are Dramatically Diverse 2

Confidence in Every Context 3

Do Teachers Make a Difference? 4

What Is Good Teaching? 5

Inside Three Classrooms 5

What Are the Concerns of Beginning Teachers? 7

The Role of Educational Psychology 8

In the Beginning: Linking Educational Psychology and

Teaching 8

Educational Psychology Today 8

Is It Just Common Sense? 9

Using Research to Understand and Improve

Learning 10

POINT/COUNTERPOINT: What Kind of Research Should

Guide Education? 13

Theories for Teaching 15

Supporting Student Learning 18

Summary 19

Teachers CasebookWhat Is an Effective Teacher? What

Would They Do? 20




Teachers CasebookSymbols and Cymbals:

What Would You Do? 22

Overview and Objectives 23

A Definition of Development 23

Three Questions Across the Theories 24

General Principles of Development 25

The Brain and Cognitive Development 25

The Developing Brain: Neurons 26

The Developing Brain: Cerebral Cortex 28

Adolescent Development and the Brain 30

Putting It All Together: How the Brain Works 30

Neuroscience, Learning, and Teaching 31

POINT/COUNTERPOINT: Brain-Based Education 34

Lessons for Teachers: General Principles 34

Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development 36

Influences on Development 37

Basic Tendencies in Thinking 37

Four Stages of Cognitive Development 38


Helping Families Care for Preoperational Children 41

GUIDELINES: Teaching the Concrete-Operational Child 44

Information Processing and Neo-Piagetian Views of Cognitive

Development 45

GUIDELINES: Helping Students to Use Formal Operations 46

Limitations of Piagets Theory 47

Vygotskys Sociocultural Perspective 50

The Social Sources of Individual Thinking 50

Cultural Tools and Cognitive Development 51

The Role of Language and Private Speech 52

The Zone of Proximal Development 54

Limitations of Vygotskys Theory 55

Implications of Piagets and Vygotskys Theories for

Teachers 55

Piaget: What Can We Learn? 55

Vygotsky: What Can We Learn? 57

An Example Curriculum: Tools of the Mind 58

Reaching Every Student: Teaching in the Magic Middle 59

GUIDELINES: Applying Vygotskys Ideas to Teaching 60

Cognitive Development: Lessons for Teachers 60

Summary 60

Teachers CasebookSymbols and Cymbals: What Would

They Do? 62




Teachers CasebookMean Girls: What Would You Do? 64

Overview and Objectives 6




Physical Development 65

Physical and Motor Development 65

GUIDELINES: Dealing with Physical Differences in the

Classroom 68

Play, Recess, and Physical Activity 68

Challenges in Physical Development 70

GUIDELINES: Supporting Positive Body Images in

Adolescents 72

Bronfenbrenner: The Social Context for Development 72

Families 73


Connecting with Families 76

GUIDELINES: Helping Children of Divorce 77

Peers 78

Reaching Every Student: Teacher Support 80

Teachers and Child Abuse 81

Society and Media 83

Identity and Self-Concept 84

Erikson: Stages of Individual Development 84

GUIDELINES: Encouraging Initiative and Industry 86

GUIDELINES: Supporting Identity Formation 89

Ethnic and Racial Identity 90

Self-Concept 91

Sex Differences in Self-Concept of Academic Competence 93

Self-Esteem 94

POINT/COUNTERPOINT: What Should Schools Do to

Encourage Students Self-Esteem? 95

Understanding Others and Moral Development 96

Theory of Mind and Intention 96

Moral Development 96

Moral Judgments, Social Conventions, and Personal Choices 98

Diversity in Moral Reasoning 100

Beyond Reasoning: Haidts Social Intuitionist Model of Moral

Psychology 100

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