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Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the concept as it relates to EEC.

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the concept as it relates to EEC.

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the concept as it relates to EEC.

PSYC-3010-10,Crisis and Intervention

Week 6: Counter transference, Secondary Traumatic Stress Disorder, Vicarious Traumatisation, Burnout, and Wellness Among Human Services Professionals



Have you ever misdirected feelings of anger or resentment toward someone due to a related yet different experience? Have you ever watched coverage of a crisis event on television and been moved to tears, even though you did not experience its effects first hand? Or had friends confide in you about difficult issues in their lives so much that you began to feel like you had experienced their problems as well? Have you ever felt overwhelmed, disillusioned, and frustrated with your responsibilities at work, perhaps complaining of feeling “burned out”? These common experiences may provide you a basis for understanding the complex dynamics of four important topics in the field of crisis and intervention: counter transference, secondary traumatic stress disorder, vicarious traumatisation, and burnout. This week, you explore how and why human services professionals experience counter transference, secondary traumatic stress disorder, vicarious traumatisation, and burnout. In addition, you consider wellness strategies that can be used to prevent burnout.


Learning Outcomes

By the end of this week, you should be able to:

·         Analyze causes, characteristics, and consequences of counter transference, secondary traumatic stress disorder, and vicarious traumatisation

·         Analyze contributing factors to burnout

·         Apply wellness strategies for burnout prevention

·         Understand and apply concepts related to counter transference, secondary traumatic stress disorder, vicarious traumatisation, and burnout

Please proceed to the Learning Resources.

Learning Resources

Please read and view (where applicable) the following Learning Resources before you complete this week’s assignments.


·         Course Text:James, R. K. & Gilliland, B.E. (2017). Crisis intervention strategies (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.


·         Chapter 16, “Human Services Workers in Crisis: Burnout, Vicarious Traumatisation, and Compassion Fatigue”

·         Article: Borritz, M., Rugulies, R., Bjorner, J., Villadsen, E., Mikkelsen, O. A., & Kristensen, T. S. (2006). Burnout among employees in human service work: Design and baseline findings of the PUMA study. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 34(1), 49–58.
Use the Academic Search Complete database.

This article analyzes the results of a study that explored burnout among human services professionals in Denmark using a new burnout tool, the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory. Potential determinants and consequences of burnout are discussed.

·         Article: Ducharme, L. J., Knudsen, H. K., & Roman, P. M. (2008). Emotional exhaustion and turnover intention in human service occupations: The protective role of co-worker support. Sociological Spectrum, 28(1), 81–104.
Use the SocINDEX database.

In this article, the authors examine how co-worker support can help prevent emotional exhaustion, turnover, and burnout among human services professionals. The results of a study that analyzed data related to burnout among substance abuse treatment counsellors are examined.

·         Article: Rugulies, R., Christensen, K. B., Borritz, M., Villadsen, E., Bültmann, U., & Kristensen, T. S. (2007). The contribution of the psychosocial work environment to sickness absence in human service workers: Results of a 3-year follow-up study. Work & Stress, 21(4), 293–311.
Use the Academic Search Complete database.

This article analyzes the contribution of 16 different psychosocial factors to sickness absenteeism among 890 human services professionals. Implications for the psychosocial work environment are discussed.

With these Learning Resources in mind, please proceed to the Discussions.


Discussion 2 – Week 6

Wellness Strategies for Burnout Prevention

Burnout is one of the most significant threats to the ability of human services professionals in effectively helping clients cope with crisis. It is a pernicious and rampant force within all helping professions, and the human services field—especially the specialties of crisis and intervention—is no exception. Crisis intervention work is intrinsically stressful. In the course of their crisis work, human services professionals inevitably encounter situations and circumstances that are shocking, horrific, heartbreaking, and/or tragic. Although human services professionals are trained to deal with these events, they nevertheless take a toll—sometimes an extreme one. Compounding the difficulties of the profession are organizational issues. Human services professionals often work within larger agencies and infrastructures. Issues such as bureaucracy, poor leadership, inadequate compensation, and lack of community or fairness can cause frustration, dissatisfaction, and apathy—all contributing factors to burnout. As a result, it is essential that human services professionals working in crisis and intervention are proactive in burnout prevention. Wellness strategies are methods, practices, or processes that human services professionals can implement to make it more likely that they will maintain their mental and physical health while working in challenging situations. By developing and implementing wellness strategies, human services professionals can help reduce the risk of burnout. The bottom line is this: in order to effectively take care of others, human services professionals also must take care of themselves.

To prepare for this Discussion:

·         Review Chapter 16 in your course text, Crisis Intervention Strategies, focusing on the contributing factors to burnout within the human services profession. Also pay particular attention to the various intervention strategies, often referred to as wellness strategies, which are outlined.

·         Review the article, “The Contribution of the Psychosocial Work Environment to Sickness Absence in Human Service Workers: Results of a 3-Year Follow-Up Study,” focusing on how certain psychosocial work characteristics could be adjusted to minimize the incidence of burnout, given the results of the study.

·         Review the article, “Burnout Among Employees in Human Service Work: Design and Baseline Findings of the PUMA Study,” paying particular attention to the contributors to burnout identified in the theoretical framework of the PUMA study.

·         Review the article, “Emotional Exhaustion and Turnover Intention in Human Service Occupations: The Protective Role of Co-worker Support,” noting the benefits of co-worker support and how they reduce the risk of burnout within the human services workplace.

·         Consider the factors that might contribute to burnout when doing crisis and intervention work. Then, reflect on the wellness (intervention) strategies a human services professional might implement to maintain his or her wellness and reduce the risk of burnout.


With these thoughts in mind:

Post by Day 4 a brief description of at least three specific factors that might lead to burnout when doing work in crisis and intervention. Then, describe at least three wellness (intervention) strategies human services professionals and/or the organizations for which they work might implement to prevent burnout. Explain why these strategies might be effective. Be specific.

Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.

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