Why are the tracheal cartilages C-shaped and open posteriorly?
STUDY GUIDE for BIO 203 LAB PRACTICAL EXAM #2 SPRING 2018
· Which type of epithelial membrane lines the nasal cavity?
· List some of the features of the nasal cavity like the conchae and meatuses.
· Name the para-nasal sinuses.
· Give the function of uvula and epiglottis
· Be able to identify the larynx and name its cartilages.
· Identify the three different regions of pharynx and name the structures you will find in them like the tonsils.
· How many lobes are present in the right and left lungs? Name the fissures that separate these lobes. Why is there a difference between the # of lobes?
· Know and identify primary, secondary and tertiary bronchi; cardiac notch
· Identify a lobule; give its structural parts including the pulmonary arteriole and venule.
· Give the function of an alveolus.
· Name the membrane that lines the thorax
· What type of epithelial membrane lines the trachea?
· Name the membrane that covers the lungs.
· Why are the tracheal cartilages C-shaped and open posteriorly?
· Name the last tracheal cartilage
· Name the cells that secret surfactant. Give the function of surfactant.
· Define the following lung volumes: Tidal volume, IRV, ERV, Residual volume and vital capacity.
· Name the instrument used in measuring lung volumes.
· Name the membrane that attaches the lips to the gum.
· What is the name of the membrane that attaches the tongue to mouth floor?
· Name the different regions and layers of a tooth. (do not confuse layers with regions)
· Name different types of teeth, give their number and supply their functions.
· Be able to identify the intrinsic and extrinsic muscular layers of the tongue.
· Know the salivary glands and their function in the process of digestion.
· Identify esophagus and name the mechanism by which bolus is pushed down through it.
· Identify the four regions of the stomach and its layers (serosa, muscular layers and the mucosa with rugae on the surface). State why there are three muscular layers in the stomach and be able to identify them. Also identify structures like the rugae and pyloric sphincter. Name the membrane that connects the stomach with the liver.
· Using the small intestinal plaque, identify the following: the four layers and what you’ll find in them like the Brunner’s gland, Peyer’s patch, myenteric plexus, villi and lacteal. Give the functions of these structures.
· Name the membrane that wraps round the small intestine.
· Name the different parts of the large intestine from the cecum to the anus. You should be able to identify the following: appendix, haustra, taenia coli, ileocecal sphincter as well as the internal and external anal sphincters.
· Name the four lobes of the liver and the different bile ducts. You should be able to identify them on the liver model.
· Name the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity.
· Give the function of greater omentum.